Elements of the ASU brand

# Numerals

This section provides style guidelines for the use of numerals in text that align with the ASU brand in addition to the latest AP style updates.

## Amount vs. number

**Amount**refers to quantities measured in bulk or mass but considered as a whole.- ✅ Do: The amount of square feet in the classroom is enough to include a lab.
- 🚫 Don't: She counted the amount of candies in the jar.

**Number**refers to things that can be counted individually.- ✅ Do: The number of books in the library grew in the last last year.
- 🚫 Don't: The total number of square feet in the classroom includes a lab.

## Numbers in copy

- Spell out
**one**through**nine**, except in headlines. - Use figures for
**10 and greater**, and for units of measurement and ages:- ✅ Do: 3 miles.
- ✅ Do: 18 years old.

**Spell out casual references:**- ✅ Do: ASU attracts thousands of international students each year.
- ✅ Do: He walked a quarter of a mile.

**Do not use both a word and numeric version of a number in a sentence:**- ✅ Do: Choose one of the sessions.
- 🚫 Don't: Choose one (1) of the classes.

**Beginning a sentence:**

### Ages

**Always use figures**, even for numbers less than 10:- ✅ Do: She was
**6 years old**when she decided she wanted to be a Sun Devil.

- ✅ Do: She was

### Decimals

- Use numerals and a decimal point when expressing all fractional values.
- For amounts less than one, add a zero before the decimal point and use the singular form of the measurement if singular:
- ✅ Do: 0.35 meter.
- ✅ Do: 0.55 cubic foot.
- ✅ Do: 0.75 kilometer.

- For grade point averages, include the hundredths place unless there are special circumstances:
- ✅ Do: 2.00 GPA.

- ✅ Do: 2.00 GPA.

### Dollars, cents, money

- Use lowercase for denominations:
**dollar, cent, euro**. **Do not hyphenate**numerals and denominations.- 🚫 Don't: 2-million
- 🚫 Don't: 10-cents

**Cents:**For amounts less than a dollar, spell out**cents.**- ✅ Do: 5 cents
- 🚫 Don't: 5¢
- 🚫 Don't: $.05

**Dollars:**- Use the dollar sign and the decimal system
**for amounts larger than a dollar**:- ✅ Do: $1.01
- ✅ Do: $2.50
- 🚫 Don't: 2 dollars
**Exceptions:**Use the dollar sign with numerals in all cases except casual references of amounts without a numeral:**about a hundred dollars**.

- For amounts
**less than $1 million**, do not include decimal places:- ✅ Do: $4
- ✅ Do: $1,000
- ✅ Do: $650,000

- For amounts
**more than $1 million**, use two decimal places if available:- ✅ Do: Professor Jones was awarded a $4.35 million grant.
- ✅ Do: He expended exactly $4,349,242 over the course of the grant.
- ✅ Do: They proposed a $300 billion budget.
- 🚫 Don't: $4.35M (except in tabular format), $300 Billion.

- Use the dollar sign and the decimal system
**Euros:**Do not use**€**for euros, spell out:- ✅ Do: 1,000 euros.
- 🚫 Don't: €1,000

### Fractions

**Use figures for precise amounts larger than one**, converting to decimals when possible. See**Decimals**.**In text:**Spell out fractions less than one in text, using hyphens between the words:- ✅ Do: Two-thirds
- ✅ Do: Seven-sixteenths.

**In tabular formats:**Use figures exclusively, converting to decimals if the amounts involve extensive use of fractions that cannot be expressed as a single character. See**Decimals**.

### Grade levels

- Use the numerals with an en dash and no spaces:
- ✅ Do: The program is designed for teachers in grades 7–12.

Note: To create an en dash: Mac — Option+Minus keys; PC — Ctrl+Alt+Minus keys. See Punctuation and symbols for en dash guidelines.

### Measurements

**Always use figures**, even for numbers less than 10:- ✅ Do: He lived just
**3 miles**from ASU’s West campus.

- ✅ Do: He lived just

### Ordinals

- Unless the ordinal is part of an official name or title:
- ✅ Do:
**Spell out**first through ninth. - ✅ Do:
**Use figures**for 10th and above.

- ✅ Do:
**Do not use superscript formatting.**See Formatting for superscript guidelines.

### Percent, percentage, percentage points

**Use the % sign when paired with a numeral**, with no space, in most cases:- ✅ Do: The school’s enrollment increased 3.1% from a year ago.
- ✅ Do: Nearly 14% were first-generation students.

- Constructions with the
**% sign take a singular verb when standing alone**or**when a singular word follows an “of”**construction:- ✅ Do: Nearly 40% of the class was offered a chance to participate.
- ✅ Do: The rancher reported 75% of the crop was harvested in September.

- The
**% sign takes a plural verb when a plural word follows an “of”**construction:- ✅ Do: The rancher reported 75% of his trees were infested.
- ✅ Do: Nearly 80% of the professor’s students participated.

**Use whole numbers and decimals**, not fractions, in percentages:- ✅ Do: Nearly 10% of the crows migrated north.
- ✅ Do: The increase in subscriptions was 13.25%.
- 🚫 Don't: The increase in subscriptions was 13¼%.

- For
**a range**, the following are all acceptable**:**- ✅ Do: 12% to 15%
- ✅ Do: 12%–15%
- ✅ Do: between 12% and 15%

- For
**amounts less than 1%**precede the decimal with a zero:- ✅ Do: The cost of living rose 0.6%.

**Use percentage**, rather than percent,**when not paired with a number**:- ✅ Do: The percentage of people agreeing is small.
- ✅ Do: A large percentage of the student body participated.

- Be careful not to confuse percent with percentage point:
**A change from 10% to 13% is a rise of 3 percentage points.**This is not equal to a 3% change; rather, it’s a 30% increase.- ✅ Do: Legislators passed a 0.25 percentage point tax cut.
- 🚫 Don't: Legislators passed a 0.25 percentage points tax cut.
- 🚫 Don't: Legislators passed a tax cut of 0.25 of a percentage point.

**In casual uses, use words**, not figures or numbers:- ✅ Do: The latecomer had a zero percent chance of being first in line.

- ✅ Do: The latecomer had a zero percent chance of being first in line.

### Phone numbers

**Use only figures and hyphens**:- ✅ Do: 480-555-5555.
- 🚫 Don't: (480) 555-5555
- 🚫 Don't: 480/555-5555
- 🚫 Don't: 480.965.5555

**Always use an area code**, but do not surround it with parentheses:- ✅ Do: 480-555-5555.
- 🚫 Don't: 555-5555

**If an extension number is needed,**separate it with a comma:- ✅ Do: 480-555-5555, ext. 21

- ✅ Do: 480-555-5555, ext. 21

### Rankings

See Rankings.

### Ratios

**Use figures and hyphens, no spaces between.**Always include ratio or other noun with the figures.- ✅ Do: 22-to-1 student-to-faculty ratio.
- ✅ Do: A majority of 7-to-3.

### Temperature

- Use figures for all except
**zero**. Use a word, not a minus sign, to indicate temperatures below zero.- ✅ Do: The day's low was minus 10, 🚫 Don't: The day's low was -10.
- ✅ Do: The day's low was 10 below zero, 🚫 Don't: The day’s low was 10 below 0.

**Punctuation:**- ✅ Do: 5-degree temperatures.
- ✅ Do: Temperatures fell 5 degrees.
- ✅ Do: Temperatures in the 30s (no apostrophe).

**Temperatures get higher or lower**, but they don't get warmer or cooler.- ✅ Do: Temperatures are expected to rise in the area Friday.
- 🚫 Don't: Temperatures are expected to warm up in the area Friday.

## Tables, tabular data and statistics

**Use figures for all numbers**in tabular material and statistical and sequential forms.- In tables,
**the use of 2x and + are acceptable**. Learn more about punctuation and symbols.